The finial is the top, decorative part of a patio / market umbrella. It’s often made of wood stained to a dark color. Being exposed to the elements, the finial can eventually wear out, often with the paint peeling off of them. Other finials are made of metal or plastic (as pictured above). Finials on market umbrellas can range in shape from an elaborate bulb like shape, to something as simple as a flat disk. To connect to the umbrella, the finial sometimes has a bolt or lag screw sticking out of it’s bottom, which simply screws into a threaded receptacle / a tapped hole at the umbrella top. Or the attachment might be as pictured at the top of this post with a large plastic threaded part and receptacle.
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When looking for a replacement finial, it is a good idea to take the umbrella down so it can lay on the ground and then remove the old finial to check the attachment method, the bolt size, the base width of the finial, the thread pitch on the bolt, as well as to check the finial shape so the new finial can be matched to the old one as closely as possible.
Replacement finials specific to patio umbrellas or brands of umbrella aren’t easy to find. Finials sometimes come unstained, so some painting or staining the new part may be necessary. Some finials available online come with a threaded bolt sticking out of the end, but some do not. One may need to adapt a finial made for another application (such as for a large curtain rod or fence post) to use as a replacement umbrella finial if an exact match can’t be found. It can be necessary to drill and add the bolt to the bottom of the finial, perhaps reusing the bolt from the original finial.
Above are some example finials. Given the difficulty to finding a match for a particular umbrella, it may be worth considering getting a new umbrella entirely instead of replacing the finial, and the other pages on this site show a good selection of such shade umbrellas in a variety of sizes and canopy colors.